A VOI 2 NAK PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP ‘IMPEACHMENT’ KHERHLAINAK

Parliament le ‘impeachment’ hi England ram in aa thok. Kum 1066 hlan deuh ah Parliament muisam a rak um cang (James 2019). Kum 1376 i siangpahrang Edward III chan lio ah British Parliament nih a hmasa bik ‘impeachment’ an rak tuah, siangpahrang tlangchuak pawl sual biaceihnak a si (Bowman 2019a). Britist siangpahrang puarhrang thenkhat zong ‘impeachment’ an rak tuah hna. Kum 1688 ah hnu bik ‘impeachment’ tuahmi siangpahrang cu, King James II a si (Bowman 2019a; James 2019). Kum 1787 i U.S. Phunghram ‘impeachment’ Article II Section 4 an hun sersiam lio ah, British ‘impeachment’ biatlang an rak i lak (Bowman 2019a). Hi cabia ah U.S. Phunghram sertu lak ah aa telmi George Mason le Alexander Hamilton bia kha biapi in a lang lai.

U.S. President lak ah ‘impeachment’ tuah hmasa bikmi cu, Andrew Johnson (Democrat) a si (U.S. Senate). President Richard Nixon (Republican) kha a phu Senator pawl nih ‘convict (sualpalh biakhiah)’ evidence a fiang cang hih ti an chimh hnu ah, President rian a chuahtak (Gerhardt 2000). President Bill Clinton (Democrat) kha Senate nih ‘sualpalh lo’ in bia an khiahpiak. President Donald Trump (Republican) lawng hi voi 2 tiang ‘impeachment’ tuahmi U.S. President a si. A voi khatnak ah khan Senate nih ‘sualpalh lo’ in bia an khiahpiak (BBC News 2020). Hi cabia ah aa tel lo dingmi cu, a voi khatnak Donald Trump ‘Impeachment’ kong le voi 25nak U.S. Phunghram Remhnak chimmi President rian chawnnak kong an si lai.

U.S. PHUNGHRAM LE ‘IMPEACHMENT’ KALPI NING:- ‘Impeachment’ biafang sullam cu, cozah bawi nih rian he pehtlai in, sualpalhnak fak tuah dawh a si timi thanhnak bia a si (Cambridge Dictionary). ‘Impeachment’ tuahnak nawl hi House of Representatives lawng nih an ngeih (U.S. Constitution Article I, s.2). Representative palai tam u mee in biakhiah a si. ‘Impeachment’ tuah hnu ah, ‘a sual le sual lo’ biakhiahnak nawl kha Senate lawng nih an ngeih, cheuthum cheuhnih mee in bia an khiah (U.S. Constitution Article I, s.3). U.S. Senator cu, 100 an si, ramkulh 50 in minung 2 cio nih ramkulh ai an awh (ABC News 2021). Cucaah, Senator minung a tlawm bik 67 mee in bia a kiak lai. Democrat le Republican nih atu lio Senate ah palai 50 veve an ngeih hna i, (ABC News 2021) Political Party pakhat mee lawng in ‘sualpalh’ bia a khiak kho lai lo.

Senate i U.S. President taza an cuai tik ah, U.S. biaceih bawi ngan bik nih a hruai hna lai, Senator vialte nih taza cuainak bia an ngaih lai i, evidence tehna an zohfel lai (U.S. Constitution Article I, s.3). House of Representatives nih President cu, evidence he Senator pawl hmai ah sualphawtnak (prosecution) a tuah lai i, President nih runvennak (defence) lawyer aa lak ve lai (ABC News 2021).

U.S. PHUNGHRAM ‘IMPEACHMENT’ BIATLANG SULLAM:- U.S. Phunghram Article II, Section 4 ah, “United States President, Vice President le cozah riantuanmi dihlak (huap) cu, ram phiarrawinak, ziknawh laknak, asiloah, a dang sualpi fak le sualte fak a(n) buar hmanh maw ti biakhiah (hnu) le an sualnak biakhiah (hnu) ah, an rian in phuah an si lai,” tiah aa tial. ‘… a dang sualpi fak le sualte fak’ bia hi George Mason nih U.S. Phunghram ah a chuahpimi a si (Bowman & Sepinuck 1999).

‘… a dang sualpi fak le sualte fak’ timi sullam leh tik ah, nihin tiang bia-alnak a chuak. Zeicatiah hi biafang rual (phrase) sullam hi a phunphun in lak khawh a si caah a si (Gerhardt 2000; Bowman 2019b; Bowman & Sepinuck 1999). Biaceih bawi pawl nih phungbia sullam an leh tik ah, Latin holh ‘ejusdem generis’ timi sullam lak ning in an leh tawn ve. A sullam cu, a hmai biafang ‘ram phiarrawinak le ziknawh laknak’ bantuk in a fakmi sual dang kha ‘a dang sualpi fak le sualte fak’ nih a chim duhmi a si (Bowman & Sepinuck 1999).

Asinain U.S. Congress nih biaceih bawi phungbia sullam lehning bantuk khin, khepkha ngai in, phungbia an leh ve lai ti a um lo. President ‘impeachment’ biakhiahnak nawl le sual biaceihnak nawl kha House le Senate lawng nih an ngeihmi a si caah, an biakhiahnak kha a donghnak a si, nawlleetnak (appeal) hmun a um lo; Court an i thlak kho lo (Gerhardt 2000).

Cucaah, Senate nih ‘… a dang sualpi fak le sualte fak’ timi sullam an lak tik ah, an zohmi cu, Alexander Hamilton bia tehna le kha lio chan Supreme Court Justice James Wilson bia tehna an si (Senate; Bowman & Sepinuck 1999; Bowman 2019b). Hamilton bia nih cun, cu bantuk phungbuar cu, a muisam ah ‘ramkel’ a cuangmi a si lai i, a bik in, ‘rammi a hliamkhuaitu’ tuahsernak he aa pehtlaihmi a si lai, a ti. Wilson bia nih, U.S. ‘impeachment’ cu, ‘ramkhel ziaza le ramkhel sualtuah le sualte tuah le ramkhel dantatnak chung ah’ a ummi a si, a ti (Bowman & Sepinuck 1999; Bowman 2019b). Cucaah, ‘… a dang sualpi fak le sualte fak’ timi sullam cu, rammi cung ah President ngeihmi tuanvo le zumhtlak a sinak nawlbuar ruang ah a chuakmi sualfak a si (Gerhardt 2000). Senate nih ramkhel mit le rammi hliamhma damnak zoh in, President nawlbuarnak bia cu an khiah; nawlbuarnak bia an fehter ahcun, ramkhel dantat kha President cung ah an tlunter (Bowman & Sepinuck 1999; Bowman 2019b). ‘Impeachment’ le biaceihnak hi criminal tazacuainak a si lo, ‘ramkhel tazacuainak’ a si.

‘Impeachment’ ramkhel dantatnak cu, ‘rian in phuah’ le ‘Federal cozah riantuanter bal ti lo dingin khapnak (President tuan bal upatnak le hlawknak phih)’ lawng a si (U.S. Constitution Article I, s.3). Hi ‘impeachment’ hi U.S. President hruaimi Executive cozah puarhrannak le dimawkaratic uknak nawlbuarnak le Phunghram nawlbuarnak le rammi zalonnak covo buarpiaknak tehna khapnak ah hmanmi a si (Gerhardt 2000; Bowman 2019b; Bowman & Sepinuck 1999).

U.S. CONGRESS INNPI TUKNAK LE DONALD TRUMP ‘IMPEACHMENT’:- January 6 i U.S. Congress Innpi tukdennak kha President Donald Trump nih a uartu mibu a forh hna tiah bia a hung um. U.S. House of Representative nih ‘tapung tuan forh’ biapuh in, President Trump cu, a voi 2nak an ‘impeach’. Republican House palai 10 nih President Trump cu, an ‘impeach’ ve (Edmondson & Fandos 2021). Senate nih ‘sualpalh le palh lo’ bia a khiah lai. The New York Times nih President Trump ‘a sual ko’ tiah mee a thla dingmi Republican Senator 20 tluk an um cang, a ti (BBC News 2021b). Cu bia cu a dik ahcun, Senator 170 hrawng nih President Trump ‘a sual’ tiah bia an khiah hnga le a ramkhel nunlam a dong khawh leng ah, President tuan bal hlawknak ‘lahkhah tbk.’ a sung kho.

Asinain Congress Innpi tuk hlan i President Trump biachim kha sullam phunphun lak awk a tthat caah, Senate hmai ah ‘runvennak’ (defence) ttha aa ngeih khawh lai (Hals & Wolfe 2021). Trump bia lak ah, ‘tu/ biah (fight)’ voi 20 leng aa tel, Dec. 19 Twitter in, ‘Cuka (Capitol) ah kal u, hruhrang u,’ ti le January 6 ah ‘… diaremte le phundawte in au u,’ ti bantuk hi an si (Pilkington 2021). ‘Fight’ biafang hi sullam phun 2 in leh khawh a si caah, ‘Capitol Innpi tu u,’ ka ti duhnak a si lo, diaremte le phundawte in au u ka ti ko hi teh tiah President Trump nih a ti khawh (Hals & Wolfe 2021). Asinain Hals le Wolfe cabia ah ‘…hruhrang u,’ timi sullam khi President Trump nih zeitindah runvennak a lak te lai ti aa tial lo. Cun, Virginia i FBI Office nih a timi cu, ‘mihrang (extremist)’ pawl nih Washington DC va kal i, ‘ralpi thawh’ an duhnak kong an chim hih tiah ralrinnak a rak chim. Hi bia hi President Trump nih a theih ko nain a thlauh hna lo timi evidence a um sual ahcun, President Trump a sungh nakding a si kho (Hals & Wolfe 2021).

House of Representative nih President Trump sual a phawtu ding ‘Prosecution Team’ minung 8 rian a khinh cang hna, an pariat ning in ‘legal background’ a ngeimi lawngte an si. President Trump caah a lawyer Rudy Giuliani nih runventu (defence) team a hruai men hna lai (ABC News 2021). Cuticun ‘Prosecution Team’ le President Trump Lawyer Team cu, Senate hmai ah bia-alnak (argument) an ngei lai. ‘Argument’ a thiammi nih tazacuainak ah teinak an hmuh tawn. Asinain Senate i ‘impeachment’ biaceihnak ah cun, ‘argument’ a tthat ngai ko zong ah, Senator nih ‘ramkhel’ lei in, rammi duhnak le ram damnak le President ramkhel sual zoh in le biakhiah chuahpi ding theipar zoh in, bia an khiah tawn ko (Gerhardt 2000). President Trump zong cu, January 20 in aa din ding a si ko cang bu ah, Senate nih bia an hun ceih ding cu, a phung a si hme maw ti zong cu, ti khim a si ngai. Asinain U.S. Phunghram nih ‘impeachment’ tuah ding caan a khiahmi a um lo. Cu leng ah, Congress Innpi tuknak kha cu, President Donald Trump forhnak aa tel ko timi evidence a um ahcun, phunguk (the rule of law) in aa hruaimi U.S. ram caah ‘ramkhel dantatnak’ luatter ding cu, thil si kho a si lo. Evidence a um ko ahcun, ‘… a dang sualpi fak maw, sualte fak’ ah dek a si hrim ko lai. Asinain evidence le Republican Senator cung ah President Trump kong biakiahnak cu, aa hngat. Senate nih President Trump ‘a sual ko’ tiah bia an khiah ahcun, President i cuhthan khawh ti dawh a si lo

BIADONGHNAK:- ‘Impeachment’ le ‘Parliament’ cu, England ram in aa thok. U.S. Phunghram i ‘impeachment’ biafang khi ‘England’ ta an i lakmi a si. U.S. Phunghram i ‘impeachment’ biatlang sullam leh tikah, biaceih bawi hmanmi phung khepkha kha U.S. Congress nih zulh ve a herh lo. U.S. Congress nih rammi bochanmi President ramkhel ziaza le ramkhel sual zoh in, an kalpimi biaceihnak a si. Asinain ‘criminal tazacuai’ a si lo, ‘ramkhel dantatnak’ taza cuai a si. House of Representative lawng nih ‘impeachment’ tuahnak nawl an ngeih; Senate lawng nih President sual biakhiahnak nawl an ngeih. An nawlngeihnak le biakhiahnak hi U.S. ram ah a sang bikmi a si, U.S. Supreme Court aa thlak kho lo. Impeachment tuahmi U.S. President 3 lak ah President Donald Trump aa tel. President Trump lawng hi voi 2 tiangtiang ‘impeachment’ tuahmi a si. U.S. Congress Innpi tuk a forh hna tiah a voi 2nak ‘impeachment’ an tuahnak cu a si.

Asinain President Trump nih runven lamttha a ngeih ial khawh men ko, ‘Ka bia ah tuk va forh a um lo,’ tiin. Asinain Virginia FBI chimmi, mihrang pawl nih Washington tuk an timh timi bia kha President Trump nih a theih i, a thlauh hna lo ti bia evidence a um ahcun, a dirhmun a chia kho. President Trump sual a phawtu ding Prosecutor Phu le President Trump vengtu Lawyer Phu bia-alnak tthat ngai veve dawh an si. Asinain a tthat le tthat lo nakcun, Senator, a bik in, Republican Senator nih anmah hmuh ning bia an khiahmi kha biapi bik a si ko. “Impeachment’ nih aa tinhmi cu, uktu puarhrang le dimawkaratic uknak ralchantu khamnak a si. Uktu nih ram le rammi an hliamkhuainak hma damter nakding ah, an rian in phuah le Federal cozah rian an tlaih ti lo ding kham kha ‘impeachment’ nih aa tinhmi cu a si. Evidence le biadik zoh in, President Trump nih ‘a dang sualpi fak le sualte fak’ a tuah le tuah lo cu, fehter a si lai. Senate nih President Trump ‘a sual ko’ tiah bia an khiah ahcun, President i cuhthan khawh ti dawh a si lo.

REFERENCES:- ABC News 2021, ‘Donald Trump Has Been Impeached Again. When is His Trial, How Long Will It Take and Will He Be Convicted This Time?’, ABC News, 17 January, viewed 17 January 2021, < https://www.abc.net.au/…/when-is-donald-trumps-imp…/13060202>.

BBC News 2020, ‘Trump Acquitted by Senate in Impeachment Trial’, BBC News, 6 February, viewed 17 January 2021, < https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-51394383>.

BBC News 2021, ‘Trump Impeached for ‘Inciting’ US Capitol Riot in Historic Second Charge’, BBC News, 16 January, viewed 17 January 2021, < https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-55656385>.

Bowman, F, 2019a, ‘British Impeachments (1376-1787) and the Preservation of the American Constitutional Order’, Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 4, pp.745-792.

Bowman, F 2019b, High Crimes and Misdemeanors: A History of Impeachment for the Age of Trump, Cambridge University Press, UK.

Bowman, F & Sepinuck, SL 1999, ‘High Crimes & Misdemeanors: Defining the Constitutional Limits on Presidential Impeachment’, Southern California Law Review, vol. 72, no. 6, 1517-1600.

Cambridge Dictionary, ‘Impeachment’, online, viewed 17 January 2021,  https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictio…/english/impeachment >.

Edmondson, C & Fandos, N 2021, ‘House, With Some G.O.P. Support, Votes to Impeach Trump a Historic Second Time’, The New York Times, 14 January, viewed 17 January 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/01/13/us/trump-impeachment.

Gerhardt, MJ 2000, ‘The Special Constitutional Structure of the Federal Impeachment Process’, Law and Contemporary Problems, vol.63, no. 1, pp.245-256.

Hals, T & Wolfe, J 2021, Explainer: Could Trump Be Prosecuted for Inciting the Attack on Capitol Hill?’, Reuters, 13 January, viewed 17 January 2021, < https://www.reuters.com/…/explainer-could-trump-be-prosecut…>.

James, N 2019, The New Lawyer, John Wiley & Son, Australia. Pilkington, E 2021, ‘Incitement: A Timeline of Trump’s Inflammatory Rhetoric Before the Capitol Riot’, The Guardian, 8 January, viewed 17 January 2021, < https://www.theguardian.com/…/trump-incitement-inflammatory…>.

The Constitution of the United States of America, Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute, Articles I, s. 2 & 3, II s.4, viewed 16 January 2021, < https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/index.html>.

U.S. Senate, Impeachment, U.S. Senate, viewed 17 January 2020, <https://www.senate.gov/…/brief…/Senate_Impeachment_Role.htm…>.   Catialtu: Salai B Chan Khar